Wordwatch Towers

A plain language guide to punctuation, grammar and writing well.

Posts Tagged ‘how to use the semicolon

The semicolon and certain words

leave a comment »

When I'm cleaning windows
Image by Glamhag via Flickr

This is just some easy stuff to add to your growing knowledge about semicolons.

A semicolon must always be used before certain words in a sentence. These include:






For example:

The windows are very high; therefore I need a ladder to reach them.

These items are slightly damaged; hence the price.

I am very tired; however, I’ll soldier on.

He is a very rude man; nevertheless he got the job.

The workhorse semicolon – lists

The beautiful semicolon – writing sentences

More user-friendly guides to punctuation


The workhorse semicolon – lists

with 2 comments

Canterbury Cathedral: West Front, Nave and Cen...
Image via Wikipedia

If you want your writing to be crystal clear, the semicolon is an indispensable tool.

A sentence listing a number of different things will often need a colon and then several semicolons to ensure it reads clearly. For example:

We visited a number of places on our coach trip: Leeds, Yorkshire; Swindon, Wiltshire; London; the Isle of Wight; and Canterbury, Kent.

Just imagine what a geographical nightmare that sentence would be if only commas were used:

We visited a number of places on our coach trip: Leeds, Yorkshire, Swindon, Wiltshire, London, the Isle of Wight, and Canterbury, Kent.

Similarly, the following sentence uses a colon and semicolons to ensure clarity:

When preparing to move house, I had numerous jobs to do: liaising with my solicitor, who was based in London; liaising with our buyers, who were often out of the country; and sorting out all our bills and other financial matters.

The colon/semicolon construction for lists is also excellent when you want to set things out as clearly as possible on a page. For example:

When you visit our office, please bring with you:

  • your passport;
  • your birth certificate;
  • your driving licence;
  • your certificates of qualification; and
  • any other documents you think we will need.

Simple lists

Simple lists need only a colon followed by commas to separate the various things listed:

Peter had studied many different subjects: architecture, medicine, law and history.

When not to use a colon for lists

1. You should not use a colon after the word ‘including’. For example, the following sentence uses the colon incorrectly:

I have eaten several meals today, including: breakfast, lunch, dinner and supper. ×

You can see that the word ‘including’ does the work of the colon and so the colon isn’t needed.

2. You should not use a colon after any form of the verb ‘to be’ (‘are’, ’is’, ‘was’, or ‘were’). For example:

The members of the Beatles were: John, Paul, Ringo and George. ×

This should be:

The members of the Beatles were John, Paul, Ringo and George.


The cake’s ingredients are: eggs, flour, sugar and butter. ×

This should be:

The cake’s ingredients are eggs, flour, sugar and butter.

The beautiful semicolon

The semicolon and certain words

More writing guides

The beautiful semicolon

with 3 comments

Rage Against the Machine
Image via Wikipedia

The semicolon is a beautiful punctuation mark but we’ve grown a little afraid of it.

Grammatical Luddites have taken against it entirely, saying it’s the equivalent of a sock garter: we simply don’t need it anymore.

Well, that ain’t so. Not if you want to add elegance, clarity and — yes — beauty to your writing.

(The semicolon is also an excellent workhorse when creating lists.)

Using the semicolon to join two sentences together

This post is about using the semicolon to join two sentences together to make a far superior one. And just to entice you in, I want you to read this perfect sentence from George Orwell’s essay, Shooting an Elephant:

“And afterwards I was very glad that the coolie had been killed; it put me legally in the right and it gave me a sufficient pretext for shooting the elephant.”

Imagine a full stop after ‘killed’; it would have ruined the whole flow and impetus of the sentence. (killed it, in fact.)

Get semicolon savvy

The first rule of thumb to follow is that a semicolon must only be used when the two halves of the sentence could each make a complete sentence in their own right if a full stop were used instead.

For example, a full stop would work (although not as well) instead of a semicolon in the following sentences:

“The dress is exquisite; the shoes are divine.”

“We travelled for a long time; the road seemed to go on forever.”

“She is the most beautiful woman in the world; the cameras love her.”

The second rule of thumb is to ensure that the two halves of your sentence are closely connected in subject matter with one thought logically leading you onto the next. Or, you could think of it as:

“I’m saying this about something; now I’m going to say this about the same subject in a way that makes the sentence flow together beautifully as a whole.”

So — use a semicolon when the second half of your sentence follows on and flows naturally from the first half. You don’t want to stop the reader after the first half; you want to draw them on.

Think of it as a gentle crescendo, or two layers of the same cake: hard to prise apart and more satisfying when eaten together.

A third thumb – when not to use a semicolon

If your sentence uses a ‘linking word’ between its two halves, you must not use a semicolon. Linking words include:








For example, look at these sentences:

 “He is so ugly in real life, yet the cameras love him.”

 “Mary is very keen to go, but she cannot decide what to wear.”

Thanks to those little words ‘yet’ and ‘but’ a comma suffices and the semicolon is not required.

More user-friendly punctuation guides

%d bloggers like this: